There are five symptoms (fever, dysuria, frequency, suprapubic pain, back pain) and one sign CVA (costovertebral angle) tenderness that, when present, increase the probability of UTI diagnosis to between 60-90%.4 CVA tenderness may be present in other renal abnormalities like kidney stones and pyelonephritis.  In young, healthy women, a combination of typical symptoms, in the absence of vaginal irritation or discharge, is sufficiently accurate to initiate antibiotic treatment without further laboratory investigations yielding a probability of UTI of more than 90%.4 Other symptoms which may be present but are not required for diagnosis include cloudy or foul-smelling urine.

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