Symptoms

There are five symptoms (fever, dysuria, frequency, suprapubic pain, back pain) and one sign CVA (costovertebral angle) tenderness that, when present, increase the probability of UTI diagnosis to between 60-90%.4 CVA tenderness may be present in other renal abnormalities like kidney stones and pyelonephritis.  In young, healthy women, a combination of typical symptoms, in the absence of vaginal irritation or discharge, is sufficiently accurate to initiate antibiotic treatment without further laboratory investigations yielding a probability of UTI of more than 90%.4 Other symptoms which may be present but are not required for diagnosis include cloudy or foul-smelling urine.

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